SA Siblings

Become A Pinecone Detective!

What is a Pine Cone?

We see them all the time on trees and on the ground, but, what are they? They are not a fruit, they are not a flower, they are not a seed, they are not leaves? Watch this video to see what they really are!

What is the Golden Ratio?

Look at a sunflower, look at the bottom of a pine cone. You will see spirals that are packed very tightly. Each petal or seed comes after a single turn, and the number of turns is really really important to pack the most seeds or petals into the flower or cone. But, why do sunflowers and pine cones each turn exactly .618 turns and not .6 turns or .7 turns? Watch this cool video to learn about the Golden Ratio!

What happens to Pine Cones in water?

Pine cones have tiny seeds inside of them. The tree wants the seeds to fly on the wind when it is warm and dry, so the pine cones open then. But, when it is cold and wet, the tree wants to keep the seeds hidden in the pine cones. You may notice pine cones will open and close a lot. What do you think would happen if you put a pine cone in water over night? Do you think a forest is at risk for fires if the pine cones on the ground are open or if they are all shut?

The Golden Ratio!

Try different number of turns and see if you can make the most efficient pine cone!

Become a Shell Detective!

How are shells made?

What do shells and chalk have in common? They are both made of Calcium Carbonate, CaCO3. But, why is chalk so soft and shells are so hard? Watch this video to find out.

How are pearls made?

We have all seen beautiful necklaces made of pearls, but, how are natural pearls made? We know that clams make pearls, but, how and what are pearls made out of? Watch this video to find out!

Most beautiful shells in the world

Watch this video of beautiful shells! There are so many species of shells and probably more species to be discovered!

The oldest known animal was a clam!

Imagine being over 500 years old!! That is how old this clam is that was found near Iceland. How can you and other scientists know how old a clam is? They count the ridges. If you have a shell, use a magnifying glass and count how many ridges you see. Each ridge is a day of growth on the shell.

Become a Tree Detective!

Life as a tree

Tree rings tells us about climate history.

How do trees transport?